Glossary of Shinto Names and Terms: H

hachiman 八幡


See Basic Terms of Shinto: Hachiman.


haiden 拝殿


hall of worship.

See Basic Terms of Shinto: Haiden.


hakkô ichiu 八紘一宇


the whole world under one roof.

The word hakkô literally indicates the four cardinal directions and the four corners of the world, that is, everything under the sky or the whole world. The word ichiu is a single roof, in other words, a single family. Thus, the whole world belongs to one family. During WWII, the Japanese military promoted this ideology to justify its overseas territorial expansion. After the war, the use of this phrase was forbidden by the Occupation Forces.


Hana Matsuri 花祭り


Flower Festival.

Either a ritual of offering a flower to a kami, or the kanbutsue, an event celebrating the birth of Shakyamuni, the historical Buddha.


harai, harae 祓


See Basic Terms of Shinto: Harae.


hare -- ke ハレ・ケ



A folklore studies construct for indicating the fundamental understanding of time in the life of the Japanese. ke refers to the ordinary or everyday conception of time and hare refers to the extraordinary or non-everyday.


Hase Yoshio 波瀬善雄


(1915-84). Founder of the New Religion called Reiha no hikari kyôkai.


hassaku 八朔


The first day of the eighth month according to the lunar calendar.


hatsumôde 初詣


the first pilgrimage of New Year's.

See Basic Terms of Shinto: Hatsumode.


hatsuuma 初午


the first day of horse.

The first day of the horse in the second lunar month. Observance of this day spread throughout Japan as a custom for revering Inari, a kami of foodstuffs known for its animal familiar, the fox. Hatsuuma Festivals are held at the Fushimi Inari Shrine in Kyoto, the Toyokawa Inari Shrine in Aichi Prefecture, and various local Inari shrines.


Hattori Nakatsune 服部中庸


(757-1824). A Kokugaku scholar of the Edo period who studied under Motoori Norinaga and theorized about the formation of the sun, earth, and moon. His thought influenced Hirata Atsutane.


hayarigami ハヤリガミ


gods in fashion.

"Faddish deities," kami or buddhas forming the object of a temporary faddish cult based on rumors of some benefit or miracle.


heihaku 幣帛


See Basic Terms of Shinto: Heihaku.


heisoku 幣束


See Basic Terms of Shinto: Heihaku.


himorogi 神籬


See Basic Terms of Shinto: Himorogi.


Hina Matsuri ひな祭り


Doll Festival (Girls' Day).

A festival for girls on March 3rd. Dolls are displayed on a tiered platform with offerings such as hishimochi (diamond-shaped rice cakes) and nigorizake (a sweet, cloudy rice wine). It is also called momo no sekku (literally, the seasonal festival of the peach).


Hirata Atsutane 平田篤胤


See Basic Terms of Shinto: Hirata Atsutane (1776-1843).


Hirayama Seisai 平山省斎


(1815-90). Founder of Shintô Taisei-kyô. He also at one time was the first chief priest of Ontake-kyô.


Hiruko ヒルコ (記: 水蛭子、紀: 蛭児)


The "leech-child" or deformed offspring of Izanagi and Izanami resulting from Izanami's error of speaking first during the performance of their ritualized courtship. Later, Hiruko was identified with Ebisu, one of the seven gods of good fortune and protector of voyages by sea.


Hitonomichi Kyôdan ひとのみち教団


A Shintô-based New Religion. Founded by Miki Tokuharu (1871-1938). The organization was dissolved in 1937 when Miki and his son, Tokuchika, were convicted of lèse-majesté. In 1946 the group was reestablished by Tokuchika under the name Perfect Liberty or PL Kyôdan. Headquartered in Tondabayashi City, Ôsaka-fu; reported membership is approximately 1.25 million.


hokora 祠



See Basic Terms of Shinto: Hokora.


honden 本殿


See Basic Terms of Shinto: Honden.


honji-suijaku setsu 本地垂迹説


See Basic Terms of Shinto: Honji-suijaku setsu.


Honmichi fukei jiken ほんみち不敬事件


Honmichi lèse majesté Incident.

In 1928 Ônishi Aijirô, the founder of the group called Tenri Kenkyûkai (later renamed Honmichi), and others were arrested and charged with lèse majesté for having distributed a document that denied the divine status of the emperor and warned of coming war and national crisis. The same documents were distributed again in 1939 in violation of the Peace Preservation Law, and members throughout Japan were once again arrested for lèse majesté. This is known as the Second Honmichi lèse majesté Incident and resulted in orders for the group to disband.


hôsankai 奉賛会


service association.

Also called sûkeikai. An association composed of a shrine's parishioners and non-parishioner devotees for the purpose of performing maintenance, construction, or improvements to the shrine.